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Genetic homogeneity

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 Do you have an Aboriginal ancestor?

 

According to historian and sociologist Denys Delage , a large majority of Quebecers will find at least one Aboriginal ancestor in their family tree.

 Denys Delage says that if we gave people a blood test, we would find that in Montreal, about 75% of French Canadians have an Aboriginal ancestor, and that in the rest of Quebec, two-thirds who would have one .

 

  DNA

Recent work in which Mr. Labuda and Ms. Moreau participated, based on genealogical records and mitochondrial DNA (transmitted from mother to daughter), concluded that approximately two-thirds of Quebecers had Native American genes, but that those - these accounted on average for less than 1% in Saguenay-Lac-Saint-Jean and Montreal, and "barely more than 1% on the North Shore and Gaspé".

 

Our young men will marry your daughters

 Already in 1618, Champlain had said to the Hurons: “Our young men will marry your daughters, and we will form only one people.
Also in 1627 article XVII of the Hudson's Bay Charter stipulated that:
[...]
Any Francis who wants to take a wild girl from his wife, without doubting he will take her young, lest she be corrupted, and will not be more than twelve years old, which is an age to tell that they will be in good condition. 'estre instruictes what one wants. And it seems that even those whom we want to marry to the French, we will withdraw them from the Savages before this age to give them some tint of our religion. They tell us that when we have this marriage, they will hold us as their nation, considering the descent and kinship of families by their wives and not by men [...] These marriages cannot produce any bad inconvenience, because never the savage women will not seduce their husbands to live miserably in the woods, as the peoples of New France do.
Immigration had been almost predominantly male until the first general census of 1665. There were 719 unmarried males for only 45 females of marrying age, and the population was estimated at 3,000 across Canada (Acadia, Canada , Plaisance, Baie-d'Hudson, Pays-d'en-Haut, Pays des Illinois, Louisiana). The Indians were not counted as they were considered to be animals.
During the entire French regime, only 400 women arrived, already married and accompanying their husbands. Throughout the French regime, each year, some 400 men became coureurs des bois. They took Amerindian women for wives according to the “custom of the country”, others had intimate relations with Indian women and then abandoned them. The Church accused them of living in concubinage, adultery and "public debauchery". For their part, the Indian tribes did not forgive the French for having children for their daughters and then abandoning them.
Most native French-speaking Canadians and Acadians have Indians among their ancestors. The same is true for many descendants of early settlers from the West and the American Northwest. Several settlers founded families, taking a Native American as a companion. Native American children were also adopted, or were freed and merged with the North American population.

 

 

French nobles married Indian women in the 17th and early 18th centuries

 

 Guillaume Poitiers Dubuisson de Pommeroy (Marie Apeckicouata), Charles de Latour (Marie Wolastoqiyik, also Richard de Fronsac, lord of Fronsacet de Miramichi, Philippe Enault de Barbaucannes, surgeon, lord of Nipissigny, Nicolas Denys dit Fronsac, and Philippe D'Azy.

Descendants from Indigenous-White unions are as numerous in eastern Canada as in western Canada, where a distinct and strong Métis identity has developed. However, in eastern Canada; little remains of their existence in the writings. She explains this fact by the social and economic obligation by which all were confronted, that of choosing an occupation which required to identify either with the French way of life or that of the Aboriginals, but not with both the reverse, in the Prairies. As the Métis saw themselves as advantaged by their intermediate and versatile role in the fur trade, they did not have to choose to identify with an Aboriginal culture or French culture.

(Paragraph taken from http://www.archipel.uqam.ca/5621/1/M13057.pdf)

 

Syprien Tanguay and his "Genealogical Dictionary of Canadian Families"

 From 1620 to 1785, Cyprien Tanguay recorded 151 marriages of Native women to Quebecers or Acadians in volume I.
 He recorded 463 marriages of Native women to Quebecers or Acadians in volume VII. Total = 614 marriages.

There were numerous French / Native marriages in Acadia, New France, Louisiana, Western Canada and the American Northwest.

There were inter-racial marriages among many descendants of early settlers in the West and North West. Native American children were also adopted, or were freed and merged with the North American population.

At least 45 "Indian" interethnic unions were celebrated between Europeans and "Savages" in Acadia between 1604 and 1650, more precisely in the regions of Pentagouët (Maine), Cap de Sable (Nova Scotia), Port-Royal (Nova Scotia) and Rivière Saint-Jean (New Brunswick). In New France from 1621 to 1765, approximately 78 couples are made up of an Indian and a European woman, 45 couples are formed of an Indian and a European man.

Today's Acadians almost all descend from around 70 families, or some 900 people, settled in present-day Nova Scotia between 1632 and 1710. According to historians, about 10% of the current French-speaking population of Quebec would be of Acadian origin, which would correspond to more than 700,000 individuals.

 

From the seventeenth century leaders fran ç ais of Acadia and New France encouraged mixed marriages blessed by the church

in the hope of converting the Indians and increase the population of New France. 


Around 1680, Versailles even provided for a fee of 3000 pounds, divided into dowries of 50 pounds, for each Indian woman who

married a Frenchman. 


In fact, the marriages were done "in the manner of the country", that is to say without formal marriage.


Before 1710, an Acadian could hope to meet an itinerant priest once a year.


His visit was an opportunity to celebrate marriages or to confirm marriages contracted "in the country style" and also to confirm

baptisms and deaths. After 1713, Acadians only met a priest once or twice in their life.

 

Research carried out by a team of demographers from the University of Montreal

Research carried out by a team of demographers from the University of Montreal shows that, throughout the period of New France (1608-1760), mixed marriages were very few in the current territory of Quebec, in full more than a hundred in total. For example in 1760 the population is of French origin at 97.6% and Amerindian at less than 0.4%.

(According to: Hubert Charbonneau, the Amerindian component of the Franco-Quebecois strain. Memoirs of the French Canadian Genealogical Society, vol. 62, no 2, cahier 268, summer 2011, p. 149-157.)

We know full well that the majority of ethnic Quebecers have Aboriginal blood and vice versa. It was often enough to want to recognize a blood tie or even marriage alliance to be recognized as Native or Métis. The Métis are therefore much more numerous than we think. A close coexistence over the centuries makes the Aboriginals and Quebeckers a mixture of which the laws do not take into account.

(http://www.lapresse.ca/debats/le-cercle-la-presse/actualites/201210/26/48-1439-autochtone-ou-quebecois-qui-est-quoi.php)

 

 

French or English sounding names

Some may believe that because the Aboriginals bear the names of families of French or English origins, they therefore have European ancestors. This is not the case. Most were forced to choose an approved last name.

CANADA, 1857 - The Law "The Gradual Civilization Act"is adopted in order to promote the assimilation of the Aboriginals. In order to limit the transmission of Indian status, the Government of Canada decides to deprive Native women of their status who marry non-Native Americans as well as their descendants. If a woman marries a native of another band or tribe, she now belongs to her husband's group. If her husband, by decision of the superintendent of the reserve, is expelled, she suffers the same fate. This law also provides that when her husband dies, she cannot inherit: only her children are the heirs of the father and it is up to the latter to provide for their mother's subsistence. This last clause will be modified in 1874: one third of the husband's property goes to the wife and two thirds to the children. To top it all,they are excluded from political power within their communities: band councils are elected by the only adult males in the group and women no longer have any official voice. Western "civilization" will have made them lose their old rights and will have placed them like all other women in the country under the tutelage of men.

The Gradual Civilization Act requires Indian and Métis males over the age of 21 to read, write and speak English or French and requires them to choose an “approved last name” by which they would be legally recognized.

1890 USA - The "Indian Naturalization Act"  decreed by the Commissioner of Indian Affairs requires to be imposed on each Indien a english christian name.   Ban on translating Indian names so as not to offend non-Indians . The over names that serve as the last name should be in English or translated into English and shortened if they are too long.  The law provides that the new names were to be explained to Indians. 

 

Pure blood ?

There in no pure French blood.  French people are from multiple roots.

To the groups present in the Paleolithic and Neolithic eras were added successive waves of Celts,

then in the 3rd century waves of the Frankish, Visigothic, Alaman and Burgundian peoples and in the

9th century of the Vikings who settled in Neustria (now Normandie)

which name has its origin from “men” from the “north” which refers to the Scandinavians.

 

English people are also from multiple roots.

From the 3rd century, the first incursions of the Vikings began on the island. In the fourth century, the Romans arrived.

From 450, the Angles, a Germanic people from the actual Schleswig-Holstein (south of Denmark),

settled on the southern shores of Britannia and pushed the Celts back as far as Cornwall and Wales.

In the 7th century, in England, there were seven main Germanic kingdoms: Northumbria,

Mercia, East Anglia, Essex (East), Wessex (West), Sussex (South) and Kent.

 

 

 

 

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